Effects of Concentration and Temperature on the Viscosity of Gel-Pac
To determine the effects of concentration and temperature on the viscosity of Gel-Pac®.
Animal Science Products’ Gel-Pac® is the dominant gel delivery system for poultry hatcheries to apply edible vaccines, probiotics, and supportive additives. Rapid world-wide adoption by hatcheries also means Gel-Pac® must function properly in a variety of existing or locally manufactured spray equipment types, in different hatchery tap water temperatures, and with varying additive concentrations. To support hatcheries making sound decisions in preparing gels with optimum viscosity, researchers documented a range of viscosities at different water temperatures and Gel-Pac® concentrations.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND OBSERVATIONS
Three concentrations of Gel-Pac® in water were tested: 12.5 g/L, 25 g/L, and 37.5 g/L. These three concentrations were also added to three temperatures of water: 10°C, 24°C, and 38°C.
- Lightning Mixer
- 600mL beakers
- Water bath
- Brookfield RV Viscometer
- DI water
- Heat or cool water to desired temperature using a hot/ cold water bath.
- Start mixing with enough shear to maintain a vortex.
- Start timer for at least one minute, and continuously mix while adding Gel-Pac® powder over the timespan.
- Allow at least 5 minutes for entrained air to resolve from the gel.
- Test dynamic viscosity using a Brookfield falling ball viscometer.
The data collected for each viscosity measurement is listed in Table 1. More easily visualized in Figure 1, the viscosity of the Gel-Pac® solution decreases as the temperature of the water it was added to increases. This is evident across the usage levels, but is a more drastic effect the higher the concentration of the solution.
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